Electrostatic atomization and dispersal (ESD) were first described approximately 270 years ago. Dr. Kelly’s fundamental research has uncovered a far wider range of unique ESD capabilities than had been previously been considered possible. His technological innovations have unlocked those capabilities.

Dr. Kelly’s Spray Triode ® atomizer offers a practical way to capitalize on ESD’s attributes. It introduces a new driving force for droplet formation and dispersion that is rooted in quantum mechanics. Droplet size and distribution are controlled by imparted electrical charges and the physics of surface electrons, not conventional fluid dynamics. Droplet development is separated from all aspects of the fluid delivery process, insensitive to the flow rate and properties of the particular fluid. Because all of the droplets are charged, they must flow to ground, much as lightning carries atmospheric charged particles to ground. This “cling” or “sticky” effect eliminates overspray and aerosol drift.

ESD enables low energy delivery systems for fluids or particles, with significant advantages over conventional delivery and dispersion methods. It also efficiently separates and filters particles from fluids.

4Ry is a holding company that licenses ESD technologies and participates in joint ventures developing and commercializing those opportunities. It markets and manufacturers Spray Triode ® atomizer nozzles. To inquire about ESD opportunities, please click this link: CONTACT 4Ry, or the tab above.


 Eliminates drift and overspray of any spray because all charged particles must ground and cling to the target surface

 Enables high temperature “blue flame” combustion of logistics fuels, biodiesel and vegetable oils  Removes contaminants and purifies consumer and industrial oils for recycling

 Enables the manufacture of “finer” nanofibers (e.g. Tyvek, Gore-Tex) at lower cost and higher throughput rates than current production methods

 Is a clean technology that dramatically lowers the carbon footprint and eliminates pollutants for many consumer and industrial products and processes

 Lowers costs and increases efficiency in all application

Plant “cide” spraying: pesticides, herbicides, fungicides

All cide sprayed clings to the target plant, penetrates into the canopy and wraps – no drift or overspray and undersides coated

  • More effective spraying against the Zika virus, malarial mosquitos, etc.

Enables use of highly concentrated cide

Significantly reduces amount of cide required

Slows buildup of cide resistance

Will enable the use of drones for spraying because of small cide payloads

  • Spray large fields with one load or precisely target specific sites
  • Much safer “crop dusting”

Environmentally friendly

Spraying of livestock (insects) and meat processing (food-borne pathogens)

Hand held ESD sprayer tests showed that most or all of the sprayed agent clings to the target animal or meat product – little or no drift or overspray

The charged spray “wraps” so that surfaces not directly exposed to the spray (e.g.: underside, behind legs, ears, etc.) receive agent.

  • Results in higher transfer efficiency with shorter spray times

Significant reduction in volume of concentrated agent required vs. conventional sprayers

 Minimal harmful exposure to animals, humans and the environment

High performance clean diesel engines

Potential to

  • Reduce fuel consumption while delivering more power to the drive train
  • Eliminate production cost and user expense of high pressure injection
  • Eliminate most exhaust particulates and NOx
  • Enable true electronic control of injection and mixing

 Plug-in technology with new OEM and existing diesel engines

 Environmentally friendly, cleans all diesel engines

Reusable, “no drift” aerosols and atomizers

All sprayed particles (e.g. paint, fragrances, etc.) cling to the target – no drift

 Wrap around allows sprayed particles to cling to backside surfaces

Hand held sprayer uses “snap-in, snap-out” spray vials or packets

  • Disposable, single use or multi-use
  • Eliminates high cost and waste of pressurized canisters 

 Sprays paint or fragrance elements only, no harmful propellants, VOCs 

• Environmentally friendly

High volume industrial coatings

ESD enables high volume application of liquid or powder coatings with no drift or overspray 

 Applicable to end product manufacturing lines and pre-painted coil coating lines 

 High volume spray of powder coatings with ESD offers:

  • Uniform dispersion, no fatty edges and no orange peel
  • Elimination of all volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions
  • Ideal for vehicle body parts, building/construction panels, appliances, etc

Environmentally friendly

Nanofiber production

ESD enables much “finer” nanofiber production at industrial throughput rates

  • Improves fibrous products’ performance specifications

Forms “tree branch” structure delivering strength and uniform material properties

Applicable to many common fibrous products

  • Tyvek, Gore-Tex

Low cost, energy efficient nanofiber generation

 Environmentally friendly

Green camping gear, RVs, outdoor grills/smokers, etc.

ESD enables use of “green” fuels such as biodiesel and vegetable oil

Hot “blue” flame heat comparable to existing products using fossil fuels

Utilize non-toxic “snap-in, snap-out” disposable fuel packets

  • Eliminates high cost and waste of pressurized canisters 

Premium pricing potential vs. existing fossil fuel based products

Simple, easy, one knob operation and environmentally friendly

Filtering and recycling used oils 

ESD can separate water and contaminants from oils for re-use

  • Applies to transformer oil and lubricant oil (vehicle & industrial) 

ESD cleans the dirtiest oils so that they become “better than new” 

Recycling can be batch processing or installed as continuous filtering 

Environmentally friendly, cleans toxic oil sites